Wednesday 21 November 2018
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reliefweb - 13 days ago

World: Positive Peace Report 2018

Source: Institute for Economics and Peace Country: World
WHY POSITIVE PEACE IS TRANSFORMATIONAL Humanity is now facing challenges unparalleled in its history. Many of these problems are global in nature, such as climate change, ever-decreasing biodiversity, depletion of the earth’s fresh water, and overpopulation. Such global challenges call for global solutions and require cooperation on a scale unprecedented in human history. In a hyper-connected world, the sources of many of these challenges are multidimensional, increasingly complex and span national borders. For this reason, finding solutions to these unprecedented challenges fundamentally requires new ways of thinking. Without peace, it will not be possible to achieve the levels of trust, cooperation or inclusiveness necessary to solve these challenges, let alone empower the international institutions and organisations necessary to address them. Therefore, peace is the prerequisite for the survival of humanity as we know it in the 21st century. Without an understanding of the factors that create and sustain peaceful societies, it will not be possible to develop the programmes, create the policies or understand the resources required to build peaceful and resilient societies. Positive Peace provides a framework to understand and address the many complex challenges the world faces. Positive Peace is transformational in that it is a cross-cutting factor of progress, making it easier for businesses to sell, entrepreneurs and scientists to innovate, individuals to produce and governments to effectively regulate. In addition to the absence of violence, Positive Peace is also associated with many other social characteristics that are considered desirable, including stronger economic outcomes, higher resilience, better measures of well-being, higher levels of inclusiveness and more sustainable environmental performance. Therefore, Positive Peace creates an optimal environment in which human potential can flourish.
Understanding what creates sustainable peace cannot be found in the study of violence alone. A parallel can be drawn with medical science. The study of pathology has led to numerous breakthroughs in our understanding of how to treat and cure disease. However, it was only when medical science turned its focus to the study of healthy human beings that we understood what we needed to do to stay healthy: physical exercise, a good mental disposition and a balanced diet are some examples. This could only be learned by studying what was working. In the same way, the study of conflict is different from the study of peace, producing very different outcomes. Positive Peace is systemic and requires new thinking to be properly understood. Systems thinking originated in the study of organisms and has been extended into sociology. It can also assist in understanding the way countries and nations function and evolve. When combined with Positive Peace, systems thinking provides new ways of conceptualising and explaining societal change. A system is more than the sum of its parts and cannot be understood merely by breaking it down into its constituent parts. This distinctly contrasts the notion of linear causality which dominates decision making identify a problem, decide upon its cause and tackle the root. Without a fuller understanding of underlying system dynamics, the linear approach creates unintended consequences. The failure to solve some of society’s fundamental challenges is a testimony to this. Systems thinking opens new ways of understanding nations and how they evolve. In systems, relationships and flows are more important than events. Events or problems represent the outcomes of the relationships and flows. This is why it is important to look at the multidimensional concept of Positive Peace as a holistic, systemic framework. Positive Peace defines the goals that a system needs to evolve too. Interventions should nudge the system towards higher levels of Positive Peace. Importantly, viewing nations as systems provides a framework for understanding the relationships between humanity and the broader systems, such as the atmosphere and biosphere, which we intersect and depend upon. Systems are self-regulating and self-modifying and operate on two first as a collection of interconnected subsystems and second as part of the larger systems surrounding it. Understanding these interdependencies is essential to meeting the global challenges of our age.
Different countries have different aims, or intent. Further, societies also have both formal and informal rules, referred to as encoded norms, which govern society and aim to maintain the system in a stable state. They regulate inputs, creating what are known as mutual feedback loops. This can be observed in many societal processes, such as when a government stimulates the economy in responses to a drop in GDP or deploys more policing resources when there is a rise in crime. With differences in intent and encoded norms any two nations may react differently to the same stimulus. Tipping points also occur within systems due to lagged and non-linear relationships. IEP’s research has evidence of tipping points in relation to peace and corruption and peace and per capita income, to name some examples. In the past, societies have been understood through cau in the future, embracing these holistic, systemic approaches will forge our ability to manage an age of unprecedented challenges. Seen in this light, Positive Peace and systems thinking comprise an overarching framework for understanding and achieving progress not only in the level of global peacefulness, but in many other interrelated areas, including better economic progress and social advancement. Positive Peace provides the optimal environment for human potential to flourish.

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